The Pandemic COVID 19- A Devastating Threat to Human Existence

The Pandemic COVID 19- A Devastating Threat to Human Existence

 

The days of the planet as well as the time span were going quite well. (The Pandemic COVID 19- A Devastating Threat to Human Existence)The situation was still acceptable despite of having the conflicts and jeopardizing habits that humans have, and the situations were still considerable still whereas there are a bit amount of peace accessible, honest people existing, and there are remaining humanity, virtues and religious belief as well. But such inauspicious portion of the night turns up on the earth in the devastating form of COVID-19, is the threat for the lives of billions.

The Pandemic COVID 19- A Devastating Threat to Human Existence

 

Content Overview:

1.Background

2.Origin

3.Causes

4.Symptom

5.Consequences (Economic, political, social, religious)

6.National concern (Policy)

7.Global concern (Policy)

8.Present scenario (with statistics)

8.Remedies (with treatment & vaccine)

9.Conclusion.

 

Introduction

The coronaviruses diseases 19 (COVID – 19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS –CoV-2), which is spread around the world after emerging from Wuhan, China.

The outbreak of epidemic COVID – 19 was firstly detected in mainland China in December of 2019.  The cause of the outbreak is a new virus, which is already mentioned as known as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2). On February 12, 2020, WHO officially named the disease caused by the novel coronaviruses as Coronaviruses Diseases 2019(COVID – 19).

The Pandemic COVID-19 & Boredom Life

Definition of COVID-19 death:

 A COVID-19 death is defined for surveillance purposes as a death resulting from a clinically compatible illness in a probable or confirmed COVID-19 case, unless there is a clear alternative cause of death that cannot be related to COVID-19 disease (e.g. trauma). There should be no period of complete recovery between the illness and death.

COVID-19, an epidemic emerged into this world, is the threat to human being`s existence, and also a pandemic concern. Coronaviruses are a family of viruses which can cause illness such as the common cold, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). Coronaviruses are a family of RNA (ribonucleic acid) viruses, and it derived the name from Latin corona, meaning “croun” in public mind, exhibits a characteristic “corona” (crown) of spike proteins around its lipid envelope, have the certainty of transmitting to animals as well as human beings. Regions from where coronavirus has exploded or spread, turned up as the medical, social and economic crisis, and COVID-19 threatens the lives of billions. 

The Pandemic COVID 19- A Devastating Threat to Human Existence

 Reason of spreading:

The epidemic COVID – 19 mainly originated in a “wet market” in Wuhan, China. A wet market is indicated to a place of market with vendors selling live animals such as dogs, cats, rabbits, fish, and bats. This type of market is a reference to the need to be constantly washing the floors in these venues due to animal slaughter and to the melting ice used to preserved the food.

The specific reason of spreading the virus, is the absurdity of Chinese food items as some mammals, are rarely eaten by people or not. The common denominator among those who caught the virus in China had some level of exposure to the Huanan Seafood Market in Wuhan. The researchers believe the new virus probably mutated from a coronavirus common in animals which jumped over to humans in the Wuhan market place.  In the entire world, there are around 210 countries are affected by this epidemic and the rest of unaffected countries are near to get affected. Some countries are dangerously affected by this epidemic, corona virus like China, USA, Italy, Spain, France, UK, Canada, Switzerland, India, Iran, South Korea, japan and etc.   

In the second place, it has become the medical crisis, dying and getting affected an enormous number of people; no authentic vaccine or medicine are innovated, having inadequate facilities of getting proper treatment and admitted in clinics and hospitals. The doctors, nurses, health workers are also getting infected by it while serving the affected people, and there is not the adequate amount of PPE (Personal Protection Equipment). Contacts with various surfaces is another means for contracting the virus.

The National institutes of Health website states, “The virus that causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID – 19) is stable for several hours to days in aerosol and on surfaces, according to a new study from National Institutes of Health, CDC, UCLA and Princeton University scientists in The New England Journal of Medicine. The scientists found that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses 2 (SARC- CoV-2) was detectable in aerosols for up to three hours, up to four hours on copper, up to 24 hours on cardboards and up to two or three days on plastic and stainless steel” .

The virus transmits through droplets generated when any infected patient sneezes, speaks or coughs, and possibility of becoming infected by it, staying within 1 meter distance. Older people, people with asthma, diabetes, heart disease have a large risk of getting infected by it. The signs and symptoms of it are mild respiratory symptoms, fever, sour throat, aches, nasal congestion, new loss of taste or smell, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting and hyper breathing problem. People who are elder have a higher risk of serious illness from COVID – 19, and the risk increases with age. People who have existing chronic medical conditions also may have a biggest risk of serious illness. Serious medical conditions that increase the risk of serious illness from COVID – 19 include:

  • Serious heart diseases, such as heart failure, coronary artery disease or, cardiomyopathy.
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
  • Type 2 diabetes.
  • Severe obesity.
  • Chronic kidney disease.
  • Sickle cell disease.
  • Weakened immune system from solid organ transplants.

Other conditions may increase the risk of serious illness, such as:

  • Liver diseases.
  • Chronic lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis.
  • Brain and nervous system conditions.
  • Weakened immune system from bone marrow transplant, HIV or some medications.
  • Type 1 diabetes.
  • High blood pressure.

 Affected people`s symptoms are generally detected or incubated within the range of (1- 14) days. Due to have no cure of it, the prevention would be cleaning hands using alcohol-based hand rub or soap with water, covering mouth and flexed elbow, disposable tissue while coughing and sneezing, maintaining social distance, and the recommendations provided by WHO.

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Covid 19 A Threat for Human

Isolation is A Must:

Those people who are affected, need to be stayed isolated as well as quarantined, whether there are not necessity to get admitted in clinic or having the necessity. Besides, many countries are having Economical problems due to the lockdowns, unable to get back to the working places. The economic growth has fallen badly due to the have closing all the educational, financial, business institutions and the rest of the parts. The social crisis rises because of having inadequacy of food, medicines, and other necessary needs. People are maintaining social distance.

The Economic, political, social, religious consequences of the epidemic COVID – 19:

  • On the economic level, the pandemic has been created lots of venues for research how to get out of this crisis and what kinds of policies are better situated to handle the crisis and its aftermath, the status of the health system and its fragility, the resilience of the current world order and rising de – globalization move etc. On the political and international relations level, the crisis is likely to reshape the whole or, entire order; with the expected rising tensions between china and USA, the democratic versus autocratic regimes and their ability to handle the crisis etc.
  • The outbreak of the worldly spreading Pandemic COVID – 19 was not merely a health issue, as to the misfortune of millions around the globe; the virus was shattering event for economics, public policies, international politics, world trade, religious factor and the whole society. In addition, the pandemic’s complex consequences targeted individuals and vulnerable communities in unexpected ways, which require a better understanding through rigorous research and analysis. China, a major super power in politics and world trade, where the virus first emerged and spread, faced and is poised to face diverse challenges to its economy and international affairs as a result of the losses and tensions were born from Corona. The European Union, having just survived a protected Brexit, witnessed embarrassing inter – state divisions with regard to COVID – 19 combat, besides the reported disagreements and mutual appropriation to medical aid among member states. The USA has also been facing a lot of mistrust and skepticism in the capabilities of the current administrations in handling the crisis.
  • Governments, in both the global north and south, encountered hard decisions as to whether it is obliged to support the individuals and social groups negatively influenced by the pandemic. Some countries have taken actions early, supporting those who lost their jobs in the pandemic and offering help to the vulnerable sections in economy and society. Other governments shared responsibilities with the private sectors and NGOs, while a third type of governments transferred the entire burden of losses and vulnerability to the threatened groups through a public policy to silence and negligence. Out of this variety of approaches, the epidemic COVID – 19 posed serios questions for public policy and social justice.
  • The COVID – 19 Pandemic has impacted religion in various ways, including the cancellation of the worship services of various faiths, the closures of Sunday Schools, as well as the cancellation of pilgrimages surrounding observances and festivals. Many mosques, temples, churches, synagogues have offered worship through livestream amidst the pandemic. Relief wings of religious organizations have dispatched disinfected supplies, powered air – purifying respirators, face shields, gloves, coronavirus nucleic acid detection reagents, ventilators, patient monitors, syringe pumps, infusion pumps and food to affected areas. The administrations of mosques, temples, churches have been offered free COVID – 19 testing to the public. Adherents of many religions have gathered together to pray for an end to the epidemic COVID – 19, for those affected by it, as well as for wisdom for physicians and scientists to combat the disease.
  • In response to COVID – 19 pandemics, several national governments have applied lockdown restrictions to reduce the infection rate. That pandemic has resulted in over 4.3 million confirmed cases and over 290,000 deaths globally. It has also sparked fears of an impending economic crisis and recession. Social distancing, self – isolation and travel – restrictions have been led to reduced workforce across all economic sectors and caused many jobs to be lost. School, colleges, universities are closed down, and need for medical supplies has significantly increased. The food sector is also facing increased demand due to panic – buying and stockpiling of food products. In response to this global outbreak, we got to illustrate that and we summarize the socio – economic effects of COVID – 19 on individual aspects of the world economy. On the social level, women who are now dedicated more to house due to the virus were exposed to domestic violence. Xenophobia and racism have broken in different spots of the globe against foreign workers sharing the limited share of jobs, in addition to ethnic and religious fanaticism pointing fingers and exchanging accusations for spread of the mysterious disease.

Online Classes And COVID19

Global Policy and Concern of COVID – 19:

 

The present epidemic crisis is a huge catastrophe for the humans. The impact of lockdowns adopted to mitigate the pandemic has vastly surpassed that of the initial trade shocks and of the travel restrictions introduced soon after the outbreak.

  • Stimulating the economy and employment: The COVID -19 crisis impacts on both the demand and supply sides of labor market, and it has major implications for the goal of ensuring full employment and decent work. In particular, the crisis is pushing many families into poverty and increasing existing inequalities.

 

  • Supporting enterprises, jobs and incomes: Efforts to contain the spread of the virus has disrupted production flows, caused demand for non – essential goods and services to plummet, and forced enterprises around the world to suspend or scale down operations.

 

  • Protecting workers in the workplace: While many people have lost their jobs and income, many others continue to work. Making sure that work can be performed safely is a shared priority.

 

  • Relying on social dialogue for solutions: The lessons from previous global crises have shown that governments alone can’t address the challenges stemming from strong shocks.

 

The Pandemic COVID 19- A Devastating Threat to Human Existence

National Policy and Concern on COVID – 19:

Evacuations:

On 31 January, a special flight of Biman Bangladesh Airlines with special quarantine, three physicians, a nurse, and required medical equipment on board flew to Wuhan, China to evacuate stranded Bangladeshi citizens.

On 1 February 312 Bangladeshi citizens (297 were adults and 15 children) stranded in Wuhan, China were evacuated and brought back to Bangladesh. Most of the Bangladeshis were students and PhD researchers at different universities in the Hubei province in China where their provincial government launched multiple screening tests before allowing them to get on board the plane. Majority of the evacuees were quarantined for 14 days at the Hajj Camp in Ashkona in Dhaka and some at the Combined Military Hospital before being released two weeks later. None of these returnees from Wuhan China were tested positive for coronavirus.

Travel and entry restrictions:

On 22 January, the authorities at Hazrat Shahjalal International Airport  in Dhaka reported that they had put the airports on alert to prevent the spread of coronavirus in Bangladesh by screening travelers from China, where the virus had at that time infected nearly 300 people and killed six people. The airport claimed to turn on its thermal scanner to scan passengers to detect any infection in passengers traveling from China. A.H.M. Touhid-ul Ahsan, director of the main Shahjalal International Airport, said doctors at the airport would look for fevers, coughs, breathing difficulties and sore throats. The country’s Institute of Epidemiology, Disease Control and Research were to be notified of any passengers with symptoms for further examination, he said.

On 2 February, the government of Bangladesh decided to suspend on-arrival visas for Chinese visitors The Chittagong port also announced that as a precautionary measure to prevent the spread of coronavirus from the ships that bring goods from around the world, the port health officer would examine all sailors of the ships coming from the East Asian countries.

On 14 March, on-arrival visas were suspended for all countries, and flights from all European countries other than the United Kingdom were stopped.

 

Social distancing measures:

On 17 March, when Bangladesh had 8 confirmed cases, the government closed all schools, for the remainder of March. Dhaka University was also closed for the same period. This reportedly increased tourist traffic at the beaches in Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar, counteracting the government measure.

On 23 March, when Bangladesh had 33 confirmed cases, the government declared a ten-day nationwide holiday for the period 26 March – 4 April, ordering all public and private offices to be closed, with the exception for emergency services. People have been asked to practice social distancing and stay at home. Public transport would be limited and advice was given to avoid them. The measure has been described as a “lockdown” by the media, albeit a “relaxed” one.

The government asked the Army to ensure social distancing. ABC News Australia reported that 290 teams of soldiers were deployed across the country, that streets were empty in the capital Dhaka and the roadside shops were closed. It also said that thousands of people left Dhaka for their home villages.

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On 9 April, Bangladesh imposed a ‘complete lockdown’ on the Cox’s Bazar District where the majority of the Rohingya refugee camps are located. “No entry, no exit – until the situation improves”, said the government directive.

The government of Bangladesh, is also taking many initiative steps to combat or fight against COVID – 19. Their goal is to protect the people from the epidemic and heal as well as save those lives who are got in danger by Coronavirus. All kinds of educational institutes are closed, rather the education is executing on online. Necessary thing that needed for living such as foods, medicines, COVID protection kits etc. are provided to the people living in poverty. Social distancing is maintaining in the formal and official sectors.  COVID test kits are increasing, and COVID test centers are also increasing. Many public and private hospitals are adding in a huge number for providing the medical services to the affected people. More nurses, health workers and doctors are adding in there in a sufficient number.

Present Scenario with Statistics:

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Situation Report – 194 Data as received by WHO from national authorities by 10:00 CEST, 1 August 2020 Highlights The fourth meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding COVID-19 was convened by the WHO Director-General on 31 July 2020. The Director-General declared that the outbreak of COVID-19 continues to constitute a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC).

The recommendations from the Emergency Committee highlight the need for response, efforts to continue over the long term. WHO has updated the interim guidance on Water, sanitation, hygiene (WASH), and waste management for SARS-CoV-2. The document provides additional details on risks associated with excreta and untreated sewage, on hand hygiene, on protecting WASH workers and on supporting the continuation and strengthening of WASH services, especially in underserved areas. WHO has published a draft for Target Product Profiles (TPP) for COVID-19 therapeutics.

The three sets of TPPs describe the preferred and minimally acceptable profiles for therapeutic agents for the treatment of those with COVID-19, ranging from mild through critically ill patients. Comments on this document are welcomed by submitting a comment form. All forms should be completed with the details of the individual or organization providing the comment. For World Breastfeeding Week, WHO and UNICEF are calling on governments to protect and promote women’s access to skilled breastfeeding counselling. This is a critical component of breastfeeding support and, amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, it is even more important to find innovative solutions to ensure that access to these essential services is not disrupted.

Situation in numbers (by WHO Region) Total (new cases in last 24 hours):

Globally 17 396 943 cases (289 321) 675 060 deaths (6 142) Africa 788 448 cases (18 027) 13 545 deaths (311)

 Americas 9 320 330 cases (168 157) 355 217 deaths (4 096) Eastern Mediterranean 1 544 994 cases (11 637) 40 019 deaths (358)

 Europe 3 357 465 cases (22 550) 212 978 deaths (450)

 South-East Asia 2 072 194 cases (62 231) 44 900 deaths (869) Western Pacific 312 771 cases (6 719) 8 388 deaths (58)

 

Remedies: (Vaccine and Treatments)

 

Vaccine:

There is a large global effort to develop vaccines for protection against COVID-19 and at least ten vaccine candidates have, as of early June, 2020 entered clinical trials, including phase II trials. Safety and immunogenicity data have been reported in the scientific literature for the first-in-human trial assessing a vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate conducted in China and merit further studies. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) has been in discussion with developers of 33 potential SARS-CoV-2 vaccines since May 26 2020. However, the EMA expects that it may take at least one year before a vaccine is approved and available for widespread use in the EU/EEA. The opportunities and challenges of developing vaccines against COVID-19 are discussed widely and important lessons from SARS-CoV-1 vaccine development may guide SARS-CoV-2 vaccine design, testing, and implementation.

Pharmaceutical prophylaxis and treatment 9 (latest update 30/06/2020)

There are several large-scale, multicenter trials underway that are using an appropriately robust methodology for assessment of potential therapeutics, including the WHO Solidarity Trial, several United States National Institutes of Health and national trials in several EU Member States. Encouragement of the enrolment of patients in these clinical trials would expedite their successful and timely completion. Pharmaceuticals undergoing clinical trials to assess their safety and efficacy as potential treatments for COVID-19, include the antiviral nucleotide analogue remdesivir, systemic interferons and in particular interferon β-1a, the antiviral combination lopinavir/ritonavir, the antimalarial chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, and monoclonal antibodies against components of the immune system such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-4 . It is important that the potential treatments are carefully assessed in randomised controlled trials.

On 16 June 2020, preliminary results of a randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive clinical trial of dexamethasone were published. Dexamethasone significantly reduced the 28-day mortality, particularly among critically ill COVID-19 patients receiving mechanical ventilation. There was no evidence of benefit for patients not requiring oxygen. Based on these findings, the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends the administration of dexamethasone for COVID-19 patients who are either mechanically ventilated or require supplemental oxygen.

The EMA has published recommendations on compassionate use of the investigational antiviral agent remdesivir. Preliminary results from 1 059 hospitalized COVID-19 patients enrolled in a double blind randomised controlled trial showed that remdesivir was associated with shorter median recovery time compared to placebo (11 vs. 15 days). The 14-day mortality was 7.1% in the group of patients that received remdesivir and 11.9% in the placebo group but the difference was not statistically significant. On 25 June, EMA’s human medicines committee (CHMP) recommended that remdesivir is granted a conditional marketing authorisation for the treatment of COVID-19 patients with pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen.

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A randomised, controlled, open-label trial of lopinavir/ritonavir in 199 COVID-19 patients in China did not show any statistically significant favorable effect on the clinical course or mortality when compared to standard treatment. Similarly, a preliminary analysis of the UK RECOVERY trial that randomised 1 596 patients to lopinavir-ritonavir and compared with 3 376 patients randomised to usual care, identified no benefit of lopinavir/ritonavir on survival, the clinical course or the length of hospital stay. The study did not include a sufficient number of subjects under invasive mechanical ventilation to allow the study of the effect of lopinavir/ritonavir in this category of patients, due to the difficulty of administration of the drug in such cases.

Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has been shown in vitro to alter the uptake of the virus in cells, and small case series and a small trial had reported its use in patients during the early phases of this outbreak in China and Europe in combination with azithromycin, with conflicting results. Subsequently, in June preliminary results of a large randomised controlled trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVid-19 therapy – RECOVERY) that compared 1 542 patients that were randomised to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) with 3 132 patients that received usual care did not find any difference between the two groups in mortality, hospital stay or other outcomes. The authors concluded that any meaningful benefit of HCQ for the treatment of COVID-19 has been ruled out and discontinued randomisation in the hydroxychloroquine arm. On 17 June, WHO announced that the SOLIDARITY trial will discontinue the HCQ arm based on evidence from the trial, but also on the preliminary results of the UK’s RECOVERY trial and a Cochrane review. Hydroxychloroquine has also been studied for post-exposure prophylaxis in a randomised controlled trial that enrolled 821 individuals with household or occupational exposure to confirmed COVID-19 cases. The study did not show a statistically significant difference in the incidence of illness compatible with COVID-19 between the group receiving hydroxychloroquine and the group receiving placebo.

Reports that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worsen COVID-19 through increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), whose receptor is used by SARS-CoV-2 to enter the target cells, are not supported by evidence.

ACE-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are used for the treatment of hypertension, heart failure or renal disease. Patients receiving these agents are advised not to interrupt their treatment and there is no need to switch to other medicines.

Convalescent plasma (plasma with antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients) is under investigation for the treatment of patients with COVID-19. Despite some study limitations, the improved outcomes in recipients of convalescent plasma obtained in two recent studies in China support the possibility of investigating this therapy further in adequately designed clinical trials. The collection and clinical use of convalescent plasma for the treatment of COVID-19 patients is ongoing in the EU/EEA and the USA within clinical studies or as an emergency compassionate use. In EU/EEA Members States, these activities are carried out according to EC guidance developed in collaboration with ECDC, national competent authorities and other stakeholders. The early studies showed that convalescent plasma infusion to COVID-19 patients is safe and effective. As of 29 May, 17 674 units of convalescent plasma have been infused to COVID-19 patients in the USA.

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Lastly, during every 24 hours in the world, huge amount of people is dying and having affected by COVID-19. This amount is getting increased at jumping and geometric rate. The right to be free from this infectious disease is a prime expectation of all humanity. Due to failures of governments in their arena, their excuses no longer find repetitive ears. Anger, civil outbursts, voiced rightful indignation are emerged to occur. It has become a question for all:

 “How will this pandemic play out amidst the growing international radicalization?”

This COVID-19, such kind of pandemic as well as the disaster, nobody thought that would emerge to the world, becomes that threaten to human being. No authentic treatment, vaccine is invented to save the human lives till now. The scientists all over the world are dedicated, working hard, giving best efforts to invent the authentic vaccine of it. People all over the world are optimistic to get rid of this epidemic. In most of the countries around the world, the lock down is still remaining, and some parts of the world, that deadline of lock down is expanding incessantly. People got obsessed and distressed, mentally broken, and getting the fear of the inauspicious portion of night. Social distancing is strictly maintaining in some parts of the worlds, and the rest of the parts, it is not strictly maintaining. We people can’t do anything except praying to Almighty Allah, and seeking for the eternal peace, and blessings. By the grace of Allah, one day we must get spared of the epidemic COVID-19.

“The woods are lovely, dark and deep,

But I have promises to keep,

And miles to go before I sleep,

And miles to go before I sleep.”

  • ROBERT FROST.

 

Author: Avijit Chakrabarty Pritam

Department: English Literature.

Institution: Notre Dame University Bangladesh.

Member of “ARE Writers Community”.

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