What is Fabric?
Textile Fabric are made by utilizing various methods, for example, weaving, sewing, stitching, and so on. The vast majority of the textures are sewn or woven. However, there is additionally another sort of fabric named non-woven texture.
Non-woven textures are delivered by meshing, felting, twisting. However, all around the world, fabrics refer to the material that is utilized for making dresses.
Definition of Textile Fabric
The term fabric is derived from the Latin term fabrica meaning fabric or workshop. It means that which is put together like fabric or building. In fabric engineering, fabric is defined as a flat material with length (L), Breadth (B), Thickness (G) and having weight. While volumetric density of fabric can be determined from these parameters, it is customary to evaluate the aerial density of fabric (W or W′) in terms of oz/sq, yd. or gsm.
Textile fabrics originate from a number of sources including animals, plants, and minerals, as well as manmade synthetic materials.
Types of Textile Fabrics
Fabrics may be classified in different ways, viz,
(i) Apparel, (ii) Household (iii) Industrial, which is modified as:
(i) Apparel (a) Outer wear, (b) Inner wear, (c) Seasonal wear, (d) Staple wear, (e) Fancy wear.
Household (a) Bedding, (b) Home textiles.
Technical textiles (a) Mobile textiles, (b) Geo textiles, (c) Construction textiles, (d) Industrial textiles, (e) Medical textiles, (f) Safety textiles, (g) Smart or Intelligent textiles, (h) High-altitude textiles, (i) Mountaineering textiles, (j) Outer space textiles, (k) Military textiles, (l) Agriculture textiles, (m) Horticulture textiles, (n) Sericulture textiles, (o) Dairy textiles., (p) Fishery textiles, etc.
2. Method of manufacture as:
- Woven (a) Hand loom, (b) Power loom, (c) Khadi.
- Knitted (a) Hand knitted, (b) Machine knitted, (c) Wrap knits, (d) Weft knits.
- Embroidery (a) Hand embroidery, (b) Machine embroidery.
- Lace (a) Hand- made, (b) Machine- made.
- Braiding (a) Personal wear, (b) Industrial, (c) Oceanic.
- No-weaving, etc.
3. Materials used as:
(i) Natural, (ii) Man-made, (iii) Blends.
4. Yarns used as:
(i) Filament (mono/multi), (ii) Spun (single/folded/cable/fancy).
5. Fabric condition as:
(i) Grey/Greige / Loomstate, (ii) Finished: a) Scoured, b) Bleached, c) Dyed, d) Printed, e) Mercerized, f) Stentered, g) Calendered, h) Sanforized/Zero-Zero finished, i) Sized, j) Glazed, k) Etched/Embossed, l) Felted, m) Raised, n) Sheared, o) Gassed/Singed, p) Fire-proofed, q) Schreinered, r) Soil-resistant, s) Soil-release, t) Stain-resistant, u) Anti-crease, etc.
6. Trade or Brand names such as:
(i) Poplin, (ii) Shirting, (iii) Cambric, (iv) Lawn, (v) Voile, (vi) Crepe, (vii) Jean, (viii) Denim, (ix) Gabardine, (x) Sheeting, (xi) Long cloth, (xii) Twill, (xiii) Drill, (xiv) Tussore, (xv) Mull, (xvi) Muslin, (xvii) Damask, (xviii) Brocade, (xix) Georgette, (xx) Satin, (xxi) Plain, (xxii) Flannel, (xxiii) Blanket, (xxiv) Rug, (xxv) Broadcloth, (xxvi) Duck, (xxvii) Canvas, (xxviii) Velvet, (xxix) Corduroy, (xxx) Toweling (xxxi) Turkish Toweling, etc.
7. From Technologists viewpoint as:
(i) Structure (a) Weave/Nature of interlacement, (b) Knitting/Nature of interloping, etc. (ii) Texture/Nature of construction.
8. From Engineers viewpoint as:
(i) Breadth or width, (ii) Length, (iii) Yarn size, (iv) Setting: (a) Warp, (b) Weft, (v) Weight, (vi) Fabric Thickness, (vii) Fabric face, (viii) Fabric cover.
9. From Standards viewpoint as:
(i) Construction, (ii) Weight, (iii) Strength, (iv) Condition, (v) Application or End use.
It may be noted that there is the possibility of overlapping of characteristics under the different methods of classification of fabrics.
At present, customers are carried away by aesthetic sense involving look, colour, feel, etc. and, ultimately, cost of fabric.
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Physical Properties of Textile Fabric
Physical properties are the static physical dimensions of fabric. The following physical properties are used to define the static physical dimensions of strand fabrics:
- Fiber or filament: type, size, length
- Yarn: diameter, twist, weight or size, count, fiber content for mixed yarns, ply.
- Weight: ounces per squared or yards per pound.
- Thickness: vertical depth.
- Fabric structure
- Woven fabrics: weave type, warp and filling yarn count per linear inch<li>
- Knitted fabric: knit type, wale and course count per inch
- Finishes: chemicals such as resins, starches, waxes and mechanical effects such as
- Calendaring and napping applied to the woven fabric to yield or enhance style, durability, and utility values.
- Fabric width: The length of the filling or course
- Colour: Hue, value, and intensity (degree of brilliance)
- Fabric density: weight per unit of volume.
- Surface contour: the geometric dimension of the surface plane.
Physical characteristics of Textile Fabrics
Physical characteristics are the dynamic physical parameters of fabric. They are physical changes in the fabric that result from applying outside forces on the fabric. Most of the durability and utility values of fabric are characteristics and not properties. There are four major categories of fabric characteristics that interest the apparel manufacturer. They are:
- Style characteristics
- Utility characteristics
- Durability characteristics
- Product production characteristics
There are often correlations among the four types of characteristics. A utility characteristic such as fabric elongation will be correlated to a working characteStyleristic such as sewing without stretching.
Application and Uses of Textile Fabric
Different fabrics are used differently. They are specially made to fulfill certain purposes.
A woven fabric that is used in clothing and garments or for decoration and covering purposes. The use of these fabrics dates back to the 16th century when various fabrics like cotton, silk, wool etc. were used for making garments or apparel.
Beach Wear fabric should be carefully chosen to give it a dignified yet comfortable feel. Nylon Lycra is the standard swimwear fabric that allows the beachwear to be stretchy yet retain its shape and support. Neon prints and solids, Velvets are the other fabrics used for beach wear.
This is a heavy, loosely woven fabric, usually of wool, used in bed clothing. Nothing lasts as long as wool and reversible fabrics backed with a sherpa pile are as warm and soft as they are warm.
Lightweight and loosely woven fabrics are used in making curtains because these have the ability to control the amount of light to be let in. Some fibers like Cotton, Linen, and Polyester hold up better under the sun and are pretty safe fabrics for sewing curtains.
Drapery fabric must suit the décor and have the right properties for the window’s treatment styling. Cotton, Linen, Acrylic Blends, Polyester Blends, Acetate, Nylon are the right choice of fabrics because of factors like strength, crease-resistance, durability, wash-ability and reasonable price.
Home Furnishing Fabric
IThe textile fabrics are used to make bedspreads, blankets, quilts, curtain, tablecloths etc.All home furnishing fabrics are of high quality such as Silk, 100% Cotton, Australian Merino Lambs Wool, Baby Camel Hair, Cashmere, Lama Alpaca, wool etc.
Hosiery is tailored coverings for the feet and its usage dates back to pre-history. Wool was once a primary material but nowadays cotton is much more common.
Industrial fabric is a strong and durable woven textile and are made from high-performance, made fibers such as fiberglass, carbon, and aramid fibers. Most of these fabrics are used in industries where high heat is present and high strength and dimensional stability are required.
This fabric is used to provide warmth to any. Lycra, Sheer and Lightweight Fabrics, Wool and Mohair Blends, Blends of Cashmere, Silk, Teflon treated Fabrics etc. are mostly used for the interlining purpose.
A comfortable mattress will help in a good nights sleep and so the proper fabric should be used in the making of a mattress for example Mattress protectors have an advanced polypropylene fabric with a luxuriously soft texture. Thus mattresses are more comfortable to sleep in.
Available in a vast variety, outdoor fabrics possesses thermal, fire and abrasion resistant properties. Made from natural as well as man-made fibers, these fabrics are further manufactured into casual and sportswear.
Packing fabric is widely used to protect goods and materials while in transportation from one place to another. Generally made of stretch material, these fabrics retain their shape for a long time to come.
Pintuck fabrics are used to beautify or decorate the garments. They are mostly used for women blouses and other clothing.
Quilting is used for padding a fabric; This two-layered fabric is eas and comfortable. Cotton, silk and wool blends, polyester are popular options.
Rugs & Carpets
The fabric used to manufacture rugs and carpets are made of both natural as well as synthetic fibers, They can not only be easily cleaned but also easily moved.
One of the oldest form of woven fabric, tapestry fabric is available in multi colors and multi patterns to enchant the onlooker.
Tent fabric is generally made from strong and durable material to weather all conditions. Natural fabrics are blended with synthetic ones for making it stronger.
Made of cotton, Terry has a lot of absorbing capacity, it is extensively used to make towels, bathrobes and bath gowns.
Beautiful and useful umbrella fabric is made of canvas, linen, dupioni, as they are durable and strong. It also protects from the harmful UV rays.
Upholstery fabric are woven into beautiful and eye-catching patterns and designs. They are not only tough and durable but also do not soil or fade; easy to maintain.
That’s all for today. If you have any questions leave a comment below.
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